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The Sound of Sussex - what gave rise to its name?

PUBLISHED: 17:08 29 November 2010 | UPDATED: 16:24 20 February 2013

The Sound of Sussex - what gave rise to its name?

The Sound of Sussex - what gave rise to its name?

The much-loved Sussex Carol is performed the world over at Christmas time, but what gave rise to its name? Angela Wintle delves into the history books

The Sound of Sussex



When it comes to sweet singing of the choir, there is no sweeter Christmas moment than a rendition of The Sussex Carol.
The four verses, which opens with the lyrics, On Christmas night all Christians sing/To hear the news the angels bring, tells how all Christians rejoice at the coming of their Redeemer and salvation. It has been performed by choirs for generations, and places Sussex firmly in the hearts and minds of people the world over at Christmas tide.
Fittingly, the choir at Chichester Cathedral regularly performs it at the cathedrals annual Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols, and the carol also features on its new album, Carols from Chichester Cathedral.


But why is it known as The Sussex Carol?
It gained its name when Ralph Vaughan Williams, one of Britains greatest composers, first collected and documented it after hearing it being sung by Harriet Verrall of Monks Gate near Horsham, West Sussex, in 1904.
Vaughan Williams loved Christmas and had a lifelong passion for carols, admiring their freshness, beauty and nobility. It was an interest generated by his enthusiasm for folk songs, which were fast becoming extinct largely because the oral tradition which had helped preserve them for generations was being undermined by the increase in literacy and printed music in rural areas.
In an attempt to halt this decline, Vaughan Williams, alongside Cecil Sharp, the founding father of the folklore tradition in England, travelled the length and breadth of the countryside to collect folk-songs and carols from noted singers, transcribing and preserving them. Among these singers was Mrs Verrall, who enchanted Vaughan Williams with The Sussex Carol melody.
The carol, also known as On Christmas Night True Christians Sing and On Christmas Night All Christians Sing, was first printed in The Journal of the Folk-Song Society and later in English Folk-Carols (1911). Vaughan Williams arrangement was published as part of his Eight Traditional English Carols of 1919, and again in The Oxford Book of Carols of 1924.
The text comes from the Small Garland of Pious and Godly Songs, a book written by an Irish Franciscan bishop named Luke Wadding and published in Ghent in 1684. It isnt clear whether Wadding wrote the words or merely noted an earlier composition, but his book became popular, and greatly revised editions were published in London in 1728 and 1731, introducing the contents to English Protestants. Thus began a process of revision which culminated in versions of the text, very close to Mrs Verralls, appearing in Victorian songbooks of the 1830s and 1840s.
The song does not have a standard refrain. Instead, each verse is comprised of two couplets. The first couplet is repeated, usually performed in unison voices, and the second couplet is sung once in harmony (typically by three or four voices) and has an unusual three-measure phrasing, rather than the standard two-or-three bar phrasing found in most Western music.
Stephen Cleobury, one of the countrys leading choral experts, who directs the world famous Kings College choir at its annual Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols from Cambridge, says the carol expresses the joyous side of Christmas.
I have a particular liking for this carol because the melody is immediately appealing and has a lilting rhythm and clear structure, he says. The two arrangements I know best are by my two predecessors at Kings, David Willcocks and Philip Ledger. Ive never arranged it myself because I dont think these versions can be bettered.
Its been said that carols are a constant source of happiness and inspiration. Thanks to the passion and commitment of Ralph Vaughan Williams and Harriet Verrall, The Sussex Carol continues to bring seasonal joy to believers and non-believers alike, who live far beyond the county from which it takes its name.



Stephen Cleobury, Director of Music at Kings College, Cambridge, is always pleased to receive enquiries about membership of the Choir. Please contact him on 01223 331224 or email choir@kings.cam.ac.uk. The next auditions for choristerships are on January 16.




Sussex Carol


On christmas night all christians sing
to hear the news the angels bring
to hear the news the angels bring
news of great joy
news of great mirth
news of our merciful Kings birth


When Sin departs before thy grace
Then life and health come in its place
Then life and health come in its place
Angels and men with joy may sing
All for to see the newborn King


From out of the darkness we have light
which made the angels sing the night
Which made the angels sing the night
Glory to God and Peace to men
Now and forever more A _ men


From Mrs. Verall, Monks Gate, Sussex
And harmonization by R. Vaughan Williams, 1919

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